Water Action Decade

by Stephanie Coles

2018 marks the start of what the U.N. is calling “the Water Action Decade:” a decade-long quest to improve the world’s access to clean water. As outlined by the President of the United Nations General Assembly, “clean, accessible water is critical for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty and hunger, and it is indispensable for human development, health and well-being. There is sufficient fresh water on the planet to achieve this. But water-related challenges, including limited access to safe water and sanitation…remain high on the global agenda.”

The goals of this plan, however, are being rolled into the U.N.’s larger “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. Goals for this agenda include:

People – We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfill their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.

Planet – We are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations. 

Prosperity – We are determined to ensure that all human beings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological progress occurs in harmony with nature.

Peace – We are determined to foster peaceful, just, and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.

Partnership – We are determined to mobilize the means required to implement this Agenda through a revitalized Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focused in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people.

The agenda in total lists 169 targets in 17 goal areas.

I recently read a book by Greg McKeown called Essentialism. The core of the book can be distilled into three sentences:

  1.  “Essentialism is a disciplined, systematic approach for determining where our highest point of contribution lies, then making execution of those things almost effortless.”
  2.  “The way of the Essentialist rejects the idea that we can fit it all in.”
  3.  “When faced with so many tasks and obligations that you can’t figure out which to tackle first, stop. Take a deep breath. Get present in the moment and ask yourself what is most important this very second – not what’s most important tomorrow or even an hour from now.”

There’s a very powerful image in the book that demonstrates how much more progress can be made when channeling your energy into one goal, rather than splitting your focus in 12 different ways:

While I can’t help but feel inspired by the lofty goals of the U.N.’s agenda, it is hard to feel empowered to help as an individual when their objectives are so numerous and widespread. I worry that the lack of focus and prioritization will end up preventing them from being as effective as possible. I can’t help but wonder if the U.N.’s resources were focused on one priority, like solving access to clean water, what might be accomplished and how quickly?

Essentialism helped justify my continued support of the mission of Wells Bring Hope, which focuses strictly on solving the water crisis in Niger, the world’s poorest country. It does not try to fix every issue. Wells Bring Hope determined their priority, and how they could make their greatest contribution to solving that problem. This year, Wells Bring Hope was proud to announce that over 500 wells have been funded, transforming the lives and communities of those most in need.

If you are reading this and considering donating, I hope this comforts you. I believe that a small organization like Wells Bring Hope can have a huge impact, simply based on their focus and sense of purpose.

 

The West African Giraffe: Niger’s Success Story

by Elaine Wallace

In the past 30 years, Africa’s giraffe population has been reduced by 40% due to habitat loss, poaching, and civil unrest. In some areas, it has plummeted by more than 80% bringing some giraffe species close to extinction. The future looks bleak for many of Africa’s giraffes. But in Niger, home of the West African giraffe, a different story is unfolding. Giraffes are making a comeback thanks to a conservation strategy that has the government, conservation groups, and local communities working together to save them.

photo taken in 2015 by Barbara Goldberg at the Giraffe Park in Niger

A hundred years ago, West African giraffes numbered in the thousands and their habitat stretched from the coast of Senegal to the middle of Africa. By 1996, the population had been decimated. Only 49 giraffes remained, and their habitat had shrunk to one small part of Niger. The West African giraffe looked certain to disappear forever. Under pressure from conservation groups, Niger became the first country in Africa to adopt a National Giraffe Conservation Strategy. Other African countries and the wider international communities have been slow to respond to the plight of the giraffe, in part because of a public misperception that the iconic animal is “everywhere” in Africa. Niger was the first country to recognize the severity of the threats facing giraffes and its conservation strategy has been remarkably successful. Today, there are more than 600 West African giraffes in Niger.

Niger’s conservation strategy was three-pronged. The government passed, and actually enforced, strict laws forbidding hunting and imposing jail terms and large fines for poaching. Recognizing the potential importance of ecotourism to Niger’s economy, the government also allocated resources to promoting giraffe-based ecotourism. Most importantly, the government also took steps to resolve ongoing conflicts between giraffes and local communities. This has been a key factor in the success of Niger’s conservation policy because it has brought local communities into the conservation effort and given them a stake in the outcome.

photo taken in 2015 by Barbara Goldberg at the Giraffe Park in Niger

Most of Africa’s giraffes live in protected areas far from human activity. But Niger’s giraffes live on community lands alongside farmers, villagers, and nomadic herders, and they have to compete with people for scarce resources, such as trees and water. Giraffes eat 75 to 125 pounds of leaves per day; when people cut trees for firewood or to plant crops, the giraffes’ natural food source disappears and they must find other food to survive, which often means raiding fields and eating crops. Giraffes also get most of their water from leaves; without trees, they must compete with people for other water sources, such as lakes and rivers. The government tried to solve these problems by banning woodcutting in the giraffe zone, but people ignored the law because they needed firewood. Better solutions were required.

The government and conservation groups have adopted a variety of solutions designed to provide viable alternatives to woodcutting, poaching, and other activities that harm giraffes. To reduce deforestation and preserve water sources for giraffes, they provide free firewood and drill wells for local communities. To reduce poaching, they bring local people into the conservation effort to assist with protecting giraffes, including training local guides to track the giraffes’ locations and behaviors. They also educate local communities on the cultural and economic importance of the giraffe, provide strategies for avoiding human-giraffe conflict, and create local committees to resolve conflict.

photo taken in 2015 by Barbara Goldberg at the Giraffe Park in Niger

Women have also played a key role in Niger’s conservation strategy. For example, to combat deforestation, local communities established nurseries to grow seedlings and have replanted thousands of trees, with women sowing the majority of the seeds. In addition, many women have received microloans to start small businesses, such as raising and selling livestock, in return for pledging to be “pro-giraffe.”

Because of Niger’s conservation efforts, local communities view giraffes as bringing aid, development, and eco-tourism to the region rather than as a threat to their livelihoods. The future of the West African giraffe is still far from guaranteed, but Niger’s success has made it a model for other countries, such as Kenya and Uganda, which are now developing their own national giraffe conservation strategies.

Clean Water: Why accessibility to adequate water matters

by Britt Lipson

March 22nd, 2018 was World Water Day, but not everyone observed it. Among those who didn’t celebrate were the people of Cameroon who are suffering from frequent water cuts which means the water is turned off and stops running. As a result, water is not easily accessible.

Schools in Cameroon are particularly affected by the water shortage. When this occurs, the government shuts off the water so they can’t access it easily. They must trek far and carry gallons of water. Buea School for the Deaf is just one example. Located near the mountains of southern Cameroon, the school operates from Monday to Friday, but some students remain over the weekend if their commute is too far. The school is nestled amid beautiful mountains and trees. It almost seems an ironic background for such a serious crisis. For those who have to stay for the weekends, it is hard to leave the school in search of water as the school is located a few miles up a mountain. There is occasionally running water however the government shuts it off often to conserve it. When this occurs is not predictable to them. Also, some students are as young as 5 years old and not strong enough to carry water. They have 1 employee who remains with the students on the weekends to watch over them. This affects the students because they require water to cook. Without the ability to cook, they struggle to eat. Cameroon plans to solve the crisis by tapping into the largest river, the Sanaga, This is especially helpful for those who remain in the dorms on the weekends because they cannot go home to eat with the family. They completely rely on the school’s supply of water and food which is often limited.

Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, has a population of over three million. Residents need a daily supply of about 300,000 cubic meters of pipe-borne water, but just 35 percent of it is supplied by the city. People have resorted to unsafe sources to get the precious liquid. Some must rely on rainfall. Most cannot afford the cost of a water bottle which is normally 5 cents for 1.5 liters.

 

Cameroon has plans to help solve the crisis by tapping into the largest river, the Sanaga, which is 600 kilometers in length. It will increase the water supply. This would help thousands of people access more water in the capital of Yaounde. Unfortunately, that is one solution and it is not enough. This water shortage needs to be brought to everyone’s attention.

Having the opportunity to teach in Cameroon for one year, I witnessed the water crisis firsthand. I experienced the struggle of finding enough clean water to meet my needs. Children are particularly susceptible to water-borne diseases like cholera, which causes diarrhea that can result in life-threatening dehydration. They are particularly sensitive because they have young immune systems, which aren’t yet developed.

With access to clean water, the risk of illness and death drops dramatically. Some 768 million people still do not have access to an improved source of drinking water; 40% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. There is still a long way to go, but progress is being made. If 100% of people had access to clean water, the number of water-borne diseases and deaths would be close to zero. Clean water is critical to human health. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity1. That’s why creating water infrastructures and drilling wells is so important. Everyone deserves access to clean water.

 

 

Sources:

  1. 1. http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml
  2. 2. https://www.voanews.com/a/cameroon-water-shortages/3769100.html

A Festival for the Water Spirits

by Shayna Watson

Water plays a unique role in our daily lives by providing us the ability to remain healthy and well. Outside of it fulfilling a crucial need, water serves as a symbol of purity, fertility, and rebirth in many cultures. The people of the Niger Delta region have recurring festivals that concentrate on the two great spirits believed to govern the earth – hero people and water people. Folklore from these areas explains that hero people originated from water people, coming from them in order to live with mankind. According to this story, water people are the most powerful spirits and the genesis of man. Many villages hold these celebrations for the enjoyment of the spirits, to honor these great forces and request that the spirits control water levels, increase fish supply, and keeping flooding at bay. The Kalabari, a tribe of the Ijaw people living in the Western Niger Delta region of Nigeria, hold a four-day festival to honor Duminea, the head water spirit of their village.

During this major annual festival, the Kalabari remove a ritual basket from a shrine erected to the water spirit. Designated villagers take the basket on a canoe-guided journey to a small stream dedicated to Duminea. After the traditional religious rituals are completed at the site of the spirit’s rivulet, the rest of the villagers organize elaborate performances dedicated to the water gods that use masks and intricate structures made from material gathered by the river bank. The masks are said to be created according to the wishes of the water spirits and often include fish tails and fins. Dancers from the village perform routines around towering structures, erected to look like humans, with their faces pointing upwards toward the sky to emulate how they believe the spirits are postured while floating around the streams. Priests and priestesses of the village perform dances, often invoking and embodying the important spirits of their village.  are then manipulated by dancers to delight the spirits with the hope that they will be generous to the village in the upcoming year. The fishing and agriculture that sustain the Kalabari are dependent on water, so the Kalabari and many other tribes in the Niger Delta region work very hard to please the water spirits they believe control the bounty of their closest water sources.

In addition to these religious rituals, people of the Niger Delta region hold many celebrations and jubilant festivals that revolve around water. The annual boat regatta festival includes sailboat races and many days of other water activities. Documentation of these festivals record that villagers can be heard chanting “peace, strength. children, life!” as a call to the spirits of what they hope for their future. Access to clean water affects all aspects of life, and the Kalabari people (and many others) wish for the opportunity to have prosperous lives full of health for them and their children.

The Superpowers of Desert Animals

by Lilia Leung

Over 80% of Niger’s land mass lies in the Sahara Desert, an arid region with an annual rainfall of a few inches or less. All animals on earth require water to survive, but desert animals have evolved the incredible ability to survive in hot, dry climates by making the best use possible out of the limited water supply. Let’s take a look at some of these desert animals and the characteristics they have developed through years of evolution that have allowed them to survive in arid climates.

Camel

The first desert animal that comes to mind is the camel. Contrary to popular belief, camels do not store water in their humps. Rather, fat is stored in the humps, which allows camels to efficiently regulate their body temperature. The concentrated fat is also useful for the long, grueling days when food is scarce and the extra fat could easily be metabolized for an energy boost. Camels have also evolved the ability to excrete less water in their urine when water is scarce, and to only start sweating when temperatures reach 105ºF, allowing them to conserve more of the water in their bodies for later use.

Desert Kangaroo Rat

The desert kangaroo rat is a desert animal that makes efficient use of the water they produce through metabolic processes. As their diet, kangaroo rats eat insects and various parts of the plants, including seeds, stems, buds, fruits, and leaves, all of which they could extract water from. The kangaroo rat’s kidneys are also able to produce concentrated urine, allowing them to rid their bodies of waste without expelling too much water. In addition, desert kangaroo rats have long nasal cavities that help cool the air as it’s being exhaled, allowing it to be condensed into moisture and reabsorbed into the body. All of these body mechanisms allow the kangaroo rat to survive on limited amounts of water.

Desert Tortoise

Inactivity prevents water loss, so desert tortoises heavily regulate their activity and body temperature for the purpose of water conservation. They are the most active during rainy seasons and are less active for the remainder of the year. Desert tortoises also try to seek out the optimum habitat for water conservation. Aside from the rock shelters and pallets that they find, desert tortoises are also able to dig burrows for themselves during inactive periods. In addition to being sheltered from extreme weather conditions, the burrows hold moisture that helps tortoises from becoming dehydrated too quickly. Tortoises are also able to water in their bladders, which has permeable walls. During dry seasons, the stored water can be reabsorbed for hydration purposes.

Other amphibians like the Australian water-holding frog and the Gila monster have similar characteristics.

Thorny Devil

The thorny devil is native to the sandy areas of Australia and is so named because of the numerous spikes on its head and body. The thorny devil is able to absorb any moisture that comes in contact with its skin via the hygroscopic grooves between the spikes, and the moisture is then drawn into its mouth through the process of capillary action. Just like other desert amphibians, thorny devils lie low in the extremely warm months and the extremely cold months by hiding in underground burrows. 

Bat

While many desert animals are restricted to certain areas because of the availability of clean water, other desert animals are able to travel in search of clean water. Recently, a researcher conducting research in Namibia has found that some bat species residing around the area of the Namib Desert not only travel in search of food, they are also willing to fly great distances to search for high-quality water, in particular, water with low salinity. People living in the same area as these bats may take advantage by tracking these bats to find sources of clean water.

While we humans have not evolved the ability to use our bodies as water storage, there may be unobtrusive ways for us to take advantage of other animals’ abilities to find fresh, sanitary water. Unfortunately, the continuous change in our planet’s climate is both taking a toll on our natural resources and reducing the number of animal species on earth. The kindness we must have towards our planet and our fellow earth inhabitants are ever more important now in the face of this looming crisis.

 

Wrestling: King of Sports

by Jennifer Dees

Horse racing, camel racing, football, and rugby are among the popular sports in Niger. Nigeriens have medaled twice in the Olympics, winning a bronze medal in light welterweight boxing in 1972 and a silver medal in taekwondo in 2016. As Kate wrote in one of her posts, one man even represented Niger, which is  80% desert, in the Olympics rowing competition. But none of these sports holds the same cultural value as wrestling, which is known in Niger as the “King of Sports.”

Wrestling started out as a spur-of-the-moment game. It eventually became more popular during festivals, when people from different provinces would compete against each other. Sorro wrestling originated during these occasions, and it is practiced only in Niger. The aim is to get any part of the opponent, besides the feet, to make contact with the ground. Competitors play against every other competitor, and the one with the most wins is declared champion.

Nigerien Youth Week, a national youth sport and cultural contest, has made wrestling extremely popular. Prominent leaders began to promote wrestling to encourage national unity, organizing tournaments during harvest festivals.  In 2015, Niger won an African Traditional Wrestling Tournament, triumphing over six other countries.

Each year, 80 wrestlers compete over ten days in the Traditional National Wrestling Saber. Ten representatives come from each region of the country, accompanied by supporters and the spotlight of Nigerien media. Spectators pay not only for the wrestlers, but also the clowns that run about the arena, the music and dancing, and the griots—musician poets who recite praises before the match. The griots honor the wrestlers by performing takes, bold, rhythmic, creative, and sometimes humorous songs about the wrestler’s skills and previous victories. Following is one from the national championship of 1983 in Hausa:

 

A vast plantation is Kassou Dan Tune!

What belongs to us is ours indeed.

Tomorrow is ours,

And the next day,

If fortune smiles on us.

I saw a whirlwind, a bad omen and a lying one,

The day that Salma got himself trapped.

For a whole hour Salma stood upright

For a whole hour Kassou stood upright.

Suddenly, they charged at each other.

To wrestle with a beginner is a delicate matter

Or indeed with a sorcerer,

Or yet with a marabout.

But the strength of Kassou is not that of one man alone!

The wrestler himself also chants a kirari (self-praise), perhaps wearing a gris-gris talisman for luck and strength. Many competitors strongly believe in charms and incantations, spoken as they enter the arena. A fathia (prayer), is offered, and the Minister of Sports gives a speech, speaking of peace, cultural identity, and friendship. The winner receives a monetary award, a boubou robe and turban, a horse, and the ceremonial saber. Both winners and losers receive kari (gratuities) from the audience. Wrestlers compete more for the game itself rather than the award, and often share money with griots and inexperienced wrestlers. This year’s winner was Tassiou Sani, representing Zinder. The tournament will continue next year,  carrying a cultural tradition reflective of Niger’s unity, strength, and resilience.

 

Resources:

Sorro wrestling

Clip from the 2018 Traditional Nigerien Wrestling competition in Zinder this year

Mahaman L. Sériba’s “ Traditional Wrestling in Niger: Between State Voluntarism and

Ancestral Symbolism”

The Tuareg: A Tribe of the Sahara Desert

by Sarah Ravazza

Lack of access to clean water negatively impacts many communities in Niger, including the Tuareg people, a nomadic tribe that inhabits the Sahara Desert. This ancient African tribe has been popping up in the news recently due to their involvement in uprisings and with various rebel groups. Although the reasons behind these rebellions are complicated, an undeniable exacerbating factor is the competition for natural water on their indigenous land. The Tuareg have lived in the water-scarce Sahara Desert for centuries, but a mix of climate change and the increased water resource exploitation has seriously impacted their ability to survive in their indigenous homeland.

A very brief background of the Tuareg: dating back to as early as the 4th century, the history of this tribe is vibrant, complex, and has been influential to modern Africa. Traditionally nomadic, the clans traveled throughout their indigenous home of the Sahara Desert living off of resources and their livestock and were heavily involved in trans-Saharan trade. By the 19th century, there were quite a few clans split throughout their indigenous Sahara region, and these tribes were some of the strongest opponents to French colonialism. Once African countries gained independence in the 1960s and the modern country borders were established, the Sahara Desert (and by extension the Tuareg) had been split between 5 nations, a majority of which (around 2 million people) currently live in Niger.

One of the major challenges the Tuareg are currently facing is the depletion of water in the already resource-sparse Sahara Desert. In Niger, the Tuareg are a marginalized group and have little economic or political power. Their homeland is also rich in uranium, a prized metal that is sought by many nuclear companies. According to the University of Texas’ Climate Change and African Political Stability research, this uranium has led to serious conflicts between Tuareg tribes, the Niger government and the French company who currently mines the area. As the report states, uranium mining “is water intensive, both in underground and open pit operations, and Niger has both.” This has led to a major depletion of water resources, and access to clean water is becoming increasingly limited. Although the French company has stated they are incorporating water-saving updates that will lessen the amount of water taken from mining, with new mines being developed and other environmental issues involved when extracting uranium, the Tuareg are desperate for autonomy and ways to ensure their continued access to clean water.

With the actions of Wells Bring Hope, vitally important access to water is being brought to Tuareg and others living in the water-sparse areas of the Sahara Desert. As CCAPS research indicates, “adaptation to increasing water scarcity need not be high tech or guided by national-level policy.” Empowerment through access to clean water has a significant impact on individuals and communities. This will help not only the survival of these clans but will also impact relations between the Tuareg, neighboring towns, and the government of Niger through easing the burden and fear of not having access to a clean water.

 

Included below are links to read further on the subject:

Tuareg Wikipedia

Who are the Tuareg?  

Does Supply Induced Scarcity Drive Violent Conflicts? (Case study of the Tuareg rebellion)

Tuareg Society within a Globalized World

Five West African Visual Artists that You Should Know

by Shayna Watson

Every year, art collectors, admirers, and enthusiasts gather in New York during the first week of March for one of the world’s leading contemporary art fairs, Armory Show. An important event for the art world since 1913, this art fair has become increasingly interested in how technology and culture contribute to the art we view and how it is consumed and revered around the world.

In 2016, Armory Show chose the theme of “African Perspectives”, choosing to focus on a region of the world that is very rich in art and beauty, yet often overlooked by the western art world. Curators for the international art event wanted to showcase artists from the continent of Africa, as well as the African diaspora, in order to examine the very unique and innovative perspectives on art, global connections and identity emerging from these artists. Although the theme of this year’s fair was not centered around African artists, many of the breakout talents of the 24-year running show were of African descent. Below are five emerging artists who stole the attention and interest of art lovers from around the globe:

 

Omar Ba (Senegal)

Known for his mixed media paintings, Omar has been a student of the arts for most of his life. His work marries reality and surrealism in scenes of violence and fantasy from the present, folklore, and dynasties dating back to ancient Egypt. Ba has moved from his origins of abstract painting and now draws from his multicultural experiences to use figurative art as his storytelling medium.

Sory Sanlé (Burkina Faso)

Sanle’s goal as a photographer was never to become famous. First learning the art of photography from his work as an apprentice, Sory taught himself many of the technical aspects of printing and processing through taking pictures of the culture around him. Later in his career, he worked in a studio in his hometown of Nianiagara where it was said, “Rich people, poor people, religious people, artists, musicians, everyone could become a hero at his Volta studio.”

Lina Iris Viktor (Liberia)

Lina’s art can be distinguished from other artists’ from a mile away, with a very technique and time-consuming process seen through the detail of each painting. Her signature use of resin coated in 24-karat gold leaf on blue, black or white backgrounds has gained the attention of artists across visual and music mediums. The artist has explained that she uses these materials to reference the sacred way that gold was used by ancient cultures, and reaffirm the wealth and richness of African heritage.

Seydou Keïta (Mali)

Keita’s eloquent photography has captured a crucial time of transition for his hometown, Bamako – the capital of Mali. After receiving his first Kodak camera at the age of 14, Seydou spent the rest of his life as an artist teaching himself the techniques of shooting and printing by taking portraits of those in his community. Although Keita passed in 2001, his art is gaining popularity for its insightful storytelling of a country in political transition through imagery that seamlessly blended formality and intimacy.

 

Jadé Fadojutimi (Nigeria)

Jade is the youngest artist on this list, with her very first solo show happening earlier this year. Using juxtaposing vocabulary to define her artistic style, Jade explains that she aims to create “locations of familiar unfamiliarity, fears, and unknowns, my paintings delve into how we use the sense of place to establish our identity”. To go from her first solo show to a stage as big as Armory Show, this emerging artist has an awesomely bright future ahead.

 

 

 

 

 

Why I Stopped Taking Water for Granted

by Britt Lipson

In 2013, I had a unique and life-changing experience. For most of the year, I volunteered at an orphanage school in Buea, Cameroon. No, it was not a mission trip or a study abroad year. No, I did not go with friends or family. No, I did not know anyone there. When I share this experience with people, they look at me in awe. They’re usually appalled that someone would give up their savings and time to travel to a 3rd world country. Most people label me as brave, but I didn’t feel courageous. In fact, if I’m being honest, I felt a certain amount of anxiety run through my body. Although difficult to explain, I will try my best.

I felt a calling since I was a child. Africa was a fascination to me, and I felt compelled to visit. My childhood was by no means easy, but I can’t imagine struggling for food and water. I wanted to assist those who didn’t have access to these basic necessities, and  I felt like this experience would be meaningful. I was going to a place where water was scarce, a cherished rarity. When in Cameroon, it common for the government to turn the water off, and for the community to have to make do with the little they had. When I stayed there for a year, I conserved water in a large bin, not knowing when the water would be turned back on.

In anticipation of this event, we would prepare by trekking to a well under the scorching sun. I needed water because I was often parched and dehydrated thanks to the sweltering African heat. I would trek three miles from the school where I was volunteering with my cherished bottle of water in my bottle in hand. I did my best to conserve my water use each day, but I had a host mother close by. I would often visit, and she would cook her usual meal of rice and beans. It was a difficult meal to cook because water was not always available. There were various buckets for cooking, drinking, and bathing. Warm water was out of the question. I would normally stand in the bathtub and rinse off soap with water, chilling my body. It sounds uncomfortable, but really it was refreshing. To shiver from the frigid water, then to get dressed and go outside to face the angry African sun was an unforgettable feeling, like a tug of war for my body and mind.

I was fortunate enough to be able to afford bottled water, selling at 10 cents each. To people who receive 50 dollars each month to support their entire family, this option is out of the question. As a result, sometimes they would drink stagnant water or water that was contaminated and hope they would not fall ill. If that happened, then they need to get medicine which they cannot afford. As a result, they missed work. If they had access to clean water, none of this would have been an issue.

Residents of Cameroon’s capital Yaounde often queue for hours to fill jerry cans with water during periods of severe shortages. (UNICEF)

Upon completion of my volunteer experience, I returned home with a mix of bliss and joy. My broken heart alternated between sadness and happiness. I felt fortunate not to worry about water. In my hotel, I made a mad dash for the shower where I took a long, boiling shower. The hot water pouring on my back felt foreign after nearly a year. I was also racked with guilt. I stepped out of the shower with the steam enveloping me like a warm blanket, fighting angry tears to stop them from pouring. I knew my perspective on water had changed. My habits changed from then on. When I brush my teeth, I turn the water off. I have a timer in my shower to limit my time to five minutes. These are small changes that don’t solve the global problem, but I know I’m making a difference by conserving water locally.

U.N. Water, which coordinates the annual World Water Day campaign, reports that there are over 663 million people in the world living without a safe water supply close to home, spending countless hours queueing for or trekking to distant sources, and coping with the health impacts that come with using contaminated water. This is according to Water Shortages Plague Major Cameroon Cities. I often read articles like that to remind me how lucky I am. We take accessible water for granted. I am thankful I had the opportunity to experience living with water scarcity. I wish everyone did.

 

Tracking Malnutrition in Africa

by Lilia Leung

Malnutrition takes many forms. Did you know that you can be both overweight and malnourished? While many children today in both developing and developed countries are malnourished and overweight as a result of fast food culture, Africa is still overwhelmingly plagued by malnutrition in the form of stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Stunting (insufficient height for age), wasting (insufficient weight for height), and being underweight (insufficient weight for age) are the main factors of child growth failure (CGF), which is a fundamental impediment to human capital development.

A study published in a recent issue of Nature collected data from 2000 to 2015 and found that while almost all countries in Africa have made overall progress on improving children’s nutrition and health, there are still many disparities between regions, even those within a single country. In particular, researchers found that CGF was notably prevalent in the Sahel region, which is a semi-arid area that includes southern Niger.

Many worldwide humanitarian organizations recognize the need for action on behalf of children in Africa and have set goals aimed at motivating policy change. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Nutrition Targets, which aim to improve nutrition for all children under five by the year 2025. In 2015, the United Nations (UN) adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, which include an objective to end all forms of malnutrition by the year 2030. While the study in Nature projects that all countries in Africa are on course to meet the WHO’s targets for improved nutrition, none of them are expected to reach the UN’s goal to abolish malnutrition completely.

Though some people might consider the goals of the WHO and the UN to be ambitious, both organizations have outlined clear paths toward attainment of these goals. The WHO has come up with a series of five action plans for country officials and policymakers to undertake, most of which include the creation and maintenance of policies, interventions, and programs that support and promote nutrition and healthy eating. Meanwhile, the UN has recommended that countries allocate more funds for social programs and increase investment towards sustainable agriculture and food production.

The issue of malnutrition is, of course, one that is closely tied to water. The most common result of drinking contaminated water is severe diarrhea, which means that even children who have access to sufficient calories and nutrition can become severely malnourished if not provided with clean drinking water. A lack of clean water and hygienic conditions also make children more susceptible to illnesses that result in stunted growth.

The availability of drinking water in many regions of Africa is threatened by the severe droughts, and global warming is exacerbating this already dire situation. Clean water must be prioritized for small children who are the most vulnerable to water-borne diseases. Otherwise, UNICEF warns, as many as 600 million children could face malnutrition, disease, and death by the year 2040.

When we drill a safe water well in a village, child mortality drops by 70% thanks to the combination of clean water, adequate sanitation, and the improved nutrition made possible by vegetable gardens. The answers aren’t complicated; we just need the will to implement them. We can end the world water crisis and child malnutrition in our lifetime.