The Languages of Niger: Hausa

By Megan Campbell

Niger is linguistically diverse, with over twenty languages spoken in everyday life!

French is used for professional communication and official proceedings. Indigenous languages are a way for members of a specific ethnic group to converse, but they are rarely spoken outside that population.

Hausa, however, is an exception to that rule. Hausa is the most widely spoken language in Niger and can primarily be found in the southern region of the country. In Niger, around 53% of the population speaks Hausa. The language has been adopted by many as a lingua franca (a common language) in Niger. So, what makes this language unique? And why do people speak it?

Source: Ashashyou

Hausa is a fascinating language with numerous noteworthy elements. Compared to English, Hausa is a remarkably complex and layered language. For one thing, Hausa can be written in two scripts. The Arabic ajami is the older of the two. While this script has diminished in popularity, Islamic scholars still use it. The other script is based on the Latin alphabet, and known as boko. Boko became the official Hausa alphabet in 1930, and is overwhelmingly used today.

Another interesting attribute of Hausa is the grammatical complexity. Forming plurals is notoriously difficult, and much more complicated than simply tacking an “-s” onto the end of a word. There are somewhere between ten and seventy different ways to form a plural.

Another feature of Hausa’s grammar is that a pronoun has to accompany every single verb. The pronoun helps to determine what the tense of the verb is. English speakers are often perplexed by this rule.

Like Chinese, Hausa is a tonal language. This means that changing the inflection of your voice can change the meaning of a word. Tonal languages are often described as musical due to their fluctuating melodies and pitches. But, Hausa is not unique in its reliance on tone. In fact, many West African languages are tonal. On the other hand, there are very few European languages that could be considered entirely tonal. Interestingly, tonal languages offer some advantages to speakers. On average, those who speak tonal languages have a better understanding of pitch than those who do not. They also can pick out scales and tones easier. So, musicians may want to consider learning a tonal language.

Hausa is widely spoken for a couple of reasons. Notably, historical influences have led to the emergence of Hausa as a lingua franca, especially for trade. This development is commonly attributed to the effects of the Hausa Kingdoms (also known as Hausaland). This was a collection of Hausa states that were once spread between Nigeria and Niger. Although they prospered in the 1400s-1700s, their influence is still felt today.

If you are curious and would like to hear some basic conversational phrases in Hausa, click here.



Ancient Culture Thrives in Agadez, Niger

By Talei Caucau

Source : Vincent van Zeijst

Niger, West Africa, is not a place visited by many tourists. As one of the more isolated countries
in Africa, it remains mostly untouched by globalization. However, the northern part of Niger has
long tempted adventurous travelers who are drawn to Agadez and the vast expanse of desert that
lies beyond it, which is known as The Air.

Agadez is an ancient and important market town located in the desert northeast of Niamey, the
capital of Niger. Constructed with clay and sticks, the architecture of Agadez is stunning and
otherworldly. It looks like a relic of an ancient city, but it remains a lively and bustling town. Its
mosque is said to have one of the highest mud minarets in Africa.

Agadez has a fascinating history. The city prospered because of its position as a trading hub. For
over a thousand years, caravans have been bringing salt, a very lucrative commodity in this area,
to Agadez. A century ago, it became the marketplace for everything else merchants had to sell.
The caravans merge at Agadez to sell their goods after crossing the desert.

In Agadez, caravans can gather food for themselves and their horses and camels before they
begin the next part of their journey. Their way of life is mostly unknown to the rest of the world.
The caravans do what they must to endure droughts and constant conflict in the region. They
continue to make their way through the desert and wander through the harsh lands they know so

Source: Vincent van Zeijst

In the 15th century, Agadez was the home of a Tuareg sultanate. The Tuareg are pastoralists who
inhabit North and West Africa. Niger was taken over by French colonialists in the early 1900s,
and their reign over the city was brutal until the Tuaregs, a large Berber ethnic confederation of
nomads, fought against their cruel oppressors in an act of desperation and defiance. It took four
months for the French to quell the rebellion. Even colonial powers could not easily defeat the
mighty Tuareg in the region.

In 2010, around 2 million Tuareg were estimated to be living in West Africa. Their
lifestyle is ancient and fascinating. The Tuareg in North Africa inhabit the desert regions, live in feudal
communities in tents and wield traditional weapons. It is evident that the Tuareg, noblemen, and
clergy, are deeply entrenched in their culture and live according to their own laws. They have
learned everything they know from their elders and have preserved their ancient language and

The Tuareg continue to sustain themselves with traditional knowledge that has been passed from
generation to generation. Glimpses of a beautiful and otherworldly way of life remain today in
Agadez, Niger.

4 Easy Ways to Help Niger

By Vasti Carrion

Source: Max R – ooyooy

1. Read
One way to help Niger, the world’s least developed country, is to read news about the current
affairs of the country. In Niger, “more than 10 million people (41.8% of the population) were
living in extreme poverty in 2021” according to Our awareness of Niger’s
issues will help us be informed citizens who can develop suitable ideas to help Nigeriens address
poverty. Reading helps us understand Niger, discover Niger, and interpret Niger.

2. Volunteer
Volunteering with organizations that assist Niger can help improve the statistics for education,
water scarcity, and political development. By investing your time in Niger, you are letting
people know that it’s an important country, and it makes a statement that Niger should not be
ignored. Helping Niger by volunteering can help you give back while helping Nigeriens become
more sustainable in living their lives.

3. Advocate
Another manner you can help Niger is to let your family and friends know about the country and
its struggles. You can recommend Niger to people by sharing your facts, knowledge, and the beauty
the country beholds—this is the very definition of what advocacy means. Share on your social
media your commentary, opinions, art, and writing about Niger and what the country needs most to
improve its development and human expectancy. Be vocal about how much you care about this

4. Fundraise

You can fundraise for Niger and donate the money to various non-profits (such as Wells Bring
Hope) who focus on Niger. By fundraising, you are adding another meaning to the word “money”
that can sometimes sound hollow in our mouths. Fundraising means more than money; it means


It’s Calypso Time! – Wells Bring Hope’s 2022 Fundraiser

On Sunday, September 18th, Wells Bring Hope’s founder and president Barbara Goldberg welcomed over 100 guests to the home of Carol and Howie Cohen for the organization’s 14th Annual Fundraiser. The theme was “It’s Calypso Time!” and featured the steel drums of Alan Lightner and a décor that set a mood that was upbeat and FUN! With perfect weather, guests turned out in festive garb, sporting lots of color to match the tropical décor.

Guests nibbled on delicious Caribbean cuisine from Edible 360: coconut shrimp, poke style ahi on a wanton crisp, zucchini flowers and mozzarella quesadilla and more. The featured drinks:  the rum-laced Pirate’s Poison and a refreshing vodka lemonade called  the Calypso Cooler. Next to the bar was the aguas frescas station with tantalizing flavors like hibiscus and passionfruit. Guests also sipped wine donated by Le Vigne Winery.

While everyone mixed and mingled, our very capable volunteers enticed guests to participate in the silent auction, tempting them with trips to Sedona, San Francisco, and Scottsdale, and dining at the Polo Lounge, Musso & Frank, Cassia and more.

With many newcomers in attendance, Founder and President, Barbara Goldberg told guests about our cause and what makes it so special. Our honoree this year was critically acclaimed actor of stage and screen, Robert Gossett, who has supported WBH almost since its beginning.

During the live auction, guests got the chance to bid on some exciting travel packages including trips to Belize, St. Croix, a stay at the Carlyle in New York,  Punta Mita, as well as a thee day wine-tasting getaway to Paso Robles and a relaxing spa stay at Two Bunch Palms in the desert.

Special thanks to auctioneer extraordinaire, Clint Hufft, who made parting with one’s money a fun-time for all! And no WBH event would be complete without hearing a few words from Gil Garcetti, the man who inspired its start! In spite of all the excitement and colorful décor, the “star” of the show was the Cohen’s dog, Peaches, who everyone wanted to take home!

Thanks to all who came to support our effort to save lives with safe water, particularly our incredibly Board of Directors! Special thanks to Board members, Eduardo Robles and David Girard who went above and beyond to make this event a success. Eduardo is a professional special events planner who made this event happen and is the person responsible all the beautiful floral arrangements.  We also want to thank our very capable volunteers who helped at the event and of course, our photographer Tatsu, who captured it all!

Local Nigeriens Collaborate with Refugees in Ouallam

By Amber Persson

When the sun breaks, the people of Ouallam, a refugee camp in Southwestern Niger, are already up and beginning their long days of working in a brickyard, garden, or another trade. They are 6,000 of the nearly 270,000 refugees from Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso that have flooded into Niger to escape violent jihadist attacks over the past few years.

As time passes, many refugees come to the unfortunate realization that they may never return to their home country and that they must start making a new home for themselves. To do that, they must find a way to earn money, if not for themselves, then for their children, many of whom have been born in the camp.

Source: jhntering

The market garden launched in 2020 by UNHCR, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, has provided an opportunity for the refugees, the majority of whom are women, to create a sustainable source of food and income. Many women have learned modern gardening techniques like drip irrigation that will help preserve water resources. Tending the garden has become a joint effort of daily survival between refugees and displaced local people.

The brickyard on the other side of the camp has been another joint effort. Bricks made of soil, water, a little bit of sand and cement are left to dry in the sun. After they are dried, they can be used for construction. Notably, these innovative bricks use less resources than clay bricks, which must be baked using scarce fuel in order to set.

Many refugees have made money—something they have not seen in a long time—from selling goods from the garden or brickyard. They are working, getting married, and starting families in a place that was a temporary camp at first but has now become their long-term community. Ouallam is an example of the local people collaborating with refugees in their time of need, a welcome symbol of hope in a time when the future can seem so bleak.



Green Hydrogen : New Frontier, Old Questions

By Will Beeker

Source: DLR

In July, German energy investment firm Emerging Energy Corp (EEC) announced it is seeking a partner to help determine the feasibility of commercially developing “green hydrogen” in Niger.

Because of its extreme flammability, hydrogen can be a challenging fuel source, but its value is predicted to rise in coming years due to its potency and unique ability to serve industries that are reluctant to make the switch from oil to electricity.

Green hydrogen could be the missing link between a world that runs on oil and one that runs on renewable energy.


What is green hydrogen?

Hydrogen, as a fuel source, comes from adding electricity to water to separate the oxygen and hydrogen molecules in a process called “electrolysis.” The hydrogen that gets released during this process can be captured and used as fuel, providing approximately three times more energy than oil and natural gas.

Hydrogen is considered “green” when the electricity used to produce it comes from a renewable source like solar panels or wind turbines. When hydrogen is burned it does not release carbon dioxide, so it doesn’t contribute to climate change the way burning oil or natural gas does. The entire process, from creation to utilization, has the potential to be emissions-free.

Hydrogen has unique benefits like its ability to be stored for long periods of time. It’s also good fuel for demanding industrial processes like steel and concrete production because of its high energy potency. While the transport of hydrogen can be dangerous, much of the existing infrastructure we have for natural gas can be repurposed to move hydrogen.

What about the water?

Source: NigerTZai

You may be thinking: Why develop a water-dependent source of energy in a place with so little water? Although EEC and other investors still need to prove that green hydrogen development will not come at the expense of an already water-deprived nation, there are a few arguments in favor of developing green hydrogen in Niger.

Firstly, although fresh water is required to make hydrogen through electrolysis, it doesn’t need to be clean water. “Wastewater” from various industries can be recycled to produce hydrogen. As one Yale researcher put it: “We have all of these underutilized sources—treated wastewater, resource extraction wastewater, industrial wastewaters that we could treat… We may not want to use them for drinking water, but we could use them for other purposes, and that would save the drinking water for drinking, which is especially important for water-scarce areas.”

Another possibility is the increasing development of desalination, which is a process that turns salt water into freshwater. In fact, a report from the International Renewable Energy Agency indicates that even for a landlocked country like Niger, the development and transport of desalinized water could still be cost-effective: “Even in regions far from the coastline, water transport could be considered, which will increase the cost of water supply, but it will still represent a relatively small share of the total hydrogen production cost….” For this reason, and the fact that hydrogen requires less water to create than natural gas, researchers even suggest that green hydrogen could alleviate global water shortages instead of exacerbating them.


Who benefits?

The last point of concern is equity. If green hydrogen proves to be feasible in Niger, millions of dollars would be poured into the country to develop the market, which could lead to further investment in other energy sources and water sanitation expansion. But in a country where only 19% of the population has access to electricity, and only 56% have access to a source of drinking water, it’s vital that these energy developments do not come at the expense of ordinary citizens and that they share in reaping the benefits.

Hopefully, the EEC will be able to find a partner who can provide convincing answers to these difficult questions and help propel Niger into a fruitful and sustainable future without leaving ordinary Nigeriens behind.


Empowered Women, Empowered Niger

By Kayleigh Redmond

Research has shown that investing in the economic and educational success of women is vital to the development of any nation. Women typically funnel a larger percentage of their income back into their communities than men and obstructing their potential contributions only delays financial growth. Educating and empowering women in Niger can strengthen the country as a whole, but historically, Nigerien women’s educational access has been limited.

Around 76 percent of Nigerien girls are married before their 18th birthday, and many have had their first child by that age. As of 2019, the average birth rate is around seven children per woman. Raising a large family and having extensive domestic responsibilities severely limit a woman’s chances of gaining independence both financially and personally.

Starting a family at such a young age prevents girls from pursuing an education. Many have to drop out when their family members arrange marriages for them because their new duties as a wife and mother are deemed more important. Only 54 percent of female primary students reach the sixth grade, and only 14 percent of women are literate.

Source: Global Partnership for Education – GPE

Conversely, women who complete their education are less likely to marry and start a family young. They are able to earn higher incomes, contribute to the local economy, and have a seat at the table in decisions that affect their lives. Educated women are also able to act as role models for their daughters and other young girls in the community and can encourage them to continue breaking the cycle of poverty and oppression.


Having more educated women in the job market can greatly improve Niger’s overall stability. Bolstering women’s education means lower birth and poverty rates, which alleviates the burden of overpopulation and allows for more citizens to contribute to the development of their communities. A 2019 study from the World Bank Group states that reducing gender inequality in education and the workforce could increase Niger’s per capita GDP by nearly a third by 2030. By enabling women to gain an education, have less children, and earn the same salaries as men, Niger would be setting all of its citizens up for success.

Source: Wells Bring Hope

One of the first steps in making education more accessible to girls and women is reducing the amount of time-consuming domestic chores that they are responsible for. It can take hours to collect water from miles away, leaving girls unable to attend school. Wells Bring Hope provides reliable and easy access to safe drinking water, significantly reducing the amount of effort needed. This work is vital in strengthening the position of girls and women in Nigerien society by allowing them the time to pursue better lives for themselves, and ultimately better lives for all Nigeriens.





Curious How “Niger” Got Its Name?

By Vasti Carrion

Place names serve obvious practical purposes – they literally put us on the map, telling others who and where we are. Names also help form our identities, hold our histories, and often communicate something about how and why we got here. This is particularly true for countries like Niger, which have been shaped by the geography that informs their names.


Source: Vincent van Zeijst


As a result of the historical loss of written records, the exact etymology of the word Niger is unknown. Many scholars believe it comes from the Taureg word, egereou n-igereouen, which means “big river/sea,” or as translated into Arabic, “river among rivers.” Unsurprisingly then, the country of Niger shares its name with an actual river. The Niger River slithers through a landlocked section of West Africa, covering about 750 miles (1,200 km) from north to south and about 930 miles (1,460 km) from east to west, forming part of the border between Benin and Niger. The Niger River is the third largest river in Africa, running through Guinea, Mali, Benin, and Nigeria in addition to, of course, Niger.


The river has many nicknames. Locals may call it Jeliba in Manding, Isa Ber, which means “big river” in Songhay, or Joliba, a Mandigo word meaning “great river,” but the name “Niger” is the name used worldwide. The different slang names indicate how this water source is related to a variety of people who further subdivide their identity and their sense of community.


Online Etymology Dictionary: Niger

Niger River: History and Major Facts – World History Edu

Niger River (

Niger | Map, President, Population, Capital, Niamey, & Facts | Britannica

Africa’s Great Green Wall Initiative is Evolving

By Will Beeker

In 2007, a group of African countries in the Sahel region came together with an ambitious plan: planting a 5,000-mile line of trees stretching from Senegal on Africa’s west coast to Djibouti on its east coast to be completed by the year 2030. The aim was stopping the Sahara Desert from creeping southward, a process that has been accelerated by climate change and “denuding” of the land resulting from deforestation and excessive livestock grazing. It was a bold vision that would help preserve the land for future generations.


Source: Sevgart

The project has shown early signs of success. As of 2020, nearly 990,000 acres of land have been restored in Niger alone. Farmers there have begun to see soil health-improving and crops are growing again. Only 18% of the entire project has been completed so far, but much of the last decade and a half has been spent raising funds and planning the massive operation. Plans have had to undergo many revisions as unexpected obstacles have arisen.


Source: EU Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid


As more land becomes usable for crops, less becomes available to pastoralists who raise sheep or cattle as livestock, threatening the livelihoods of millions. Climatologists have also warned that such a sprawling geoengineering project may have unforeseen side effects like worsening monsoon winds as a result of a shift in local temperature and moisture. But the biggest issue was a fundamental one: planting trees is much easier than keeping them alive. As huge numbers of trees died off, the initiative had to adapt.

Source: Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security


Things took a positive turn when the Great Green Wall Initiative started utilizing indigenous land use techniques and breaking down the ambitious program into smaller, more localized projects. For example, farmers in Niger and Burkina Faso discovered new water preservation techniques and started protecting the trees that grew naturally on their land. Farmers in Burkina Faso built zai, grids of deep pits that help to collect and retain water during dry periods. In Niger, farmers started protecting and maintaining the trees that emerged naturally on their farms. These innovative approaches have proven more effective than the one-size-fits-all approach initially conceived when the project began.


These kinds of techniques often originate at a local level, and it can take years for officials to catch up, but once they’re implemented, they can yield impressive results. An ambitious plan like the Great Green Wall Initiative can be a great way to unite different peoples towards a shared goal, but lasting change seems to be most effective when letting ordinary people lead from the bottom up. This is partly because climate change is not an abstract threat for Nigeriens. They feel its effects every day as they farm, fetch drinking water, cook, clean, and even go to school. Their insight into water conservation and land preservation amid arid conditions is invaluable, and Niger’s success in utilizing a bottom-up approach is changing how Africa, and the world, think about sustainability.

Smithsonian Magazine



The New York Times



Donor Appreciation Brunch

On Sunday, May 22nd,  a group of Wells Bring Hope’s most loyal LA-based supporters gathered at the home of founder and president Barbara Goldberg for a donor appreciation brunch.

Our incredible volunteers kept the mimosas and bloody marys flowing as donors and board members enjoyed the freshest bagels in town, courtesy of Western Bagel, along with a variety of cream cheeses, and lox, of course. To satisfy our sweet teeth, scrumptious pastries were on the table, along with a special fruit salad courtesy of board members, David Girard and Eduardo Robles, who were part of the organizing team and did an outstanding job!


It was a glorious sunny day as we gathered on the lawn of the Japanese garden. Once guests had a chance to mix, mingle, eat and drink, Barbara formally welcomed them and expressed our deep appreciation for supporting our cause, especially those who had been with us since the very beginning. She also introduced WBH’s valued board members.


Barbara reminded everyone that we are trying to complete funding of our fourth health clinic water project, at a cost of $50,000, and serving 8,000-10,000 people. The campaign was kicked off at the beginning of the year by a generous gift from Sukey and Gil Garcetti’s family foundation and we hope to complete the project by October.

Barbara announced the completion of WBH’s 4th Ambassadors Program to teach high school students about community outreach. Three former Ambassadors, Anique Wertheimer, Kiley and Avery Globerman were introduced. A 5th program will start in mid-August. Finally, board member, Dr. Lene Martin, who teaches blockchain technology at Pepperdine University, told us about a project that her students have undertaken. It involves using Gil’s photos to develop NFTs (non-fungible tokens) that can be monetized to help generate funds for Wells Bring Hope.

To close things out, Barbara’s granddaughter, Lia McCluskey, announced the winning numbers in a free raffle with prizes that included handmade leather goods and bracelets from Niger, along with Wells Bring Hope branded mugs, t-shirts and hats. There were lots of winners!!


We look forward to seeing everyone at our annual fundraiser on September 18th at the home of Carol and Howie Cohen who were also in attendance!! A big thanks to everyone who joined us and to our incredible volunteers for making it a very special day.